Welding Definitions & Terms (Terminologies) A-Z

Terminologies are specialized sets of words or expressions used within particular fields, disciplines, or industries to convey precise meanings and facilitate effective communication among experts and practitioners.

Welding is an important discipline and it has numerous terminologies that welders, practitioners, DIY’s and beginner welders need to know. I have tried to compile all of them in this post. If I missed any please let me know in comment section.

Welding Terminologies


  • Active Fluxes: Active fluxes are a type of welding flux that are used in to aid in the protection of the weld and improve the overall quality of the joint. These fluxes contain chemical compounds that actively react with impurities in the metal and form slag to help cleanse and shield the molten weld pool.
  • Active Gas: A gas that reacts with other objects, for example: Oxygen.
  • Actual Throat: The shortest distance between root and fillet weld
  • Arc Blow: Arc blow in welding is a phenomenon where the welding arc is deflected or pulled off due to electromagnetic forces or magnetic fields within the work piece or its surroundings.
  • Arc Cutting: A cutting process that uses electric arc to create heat and melt the metal to disjoint it into pieces.
  • Arc Rays: Arc rays refer to the intense light emitted by the electric arc during the welding process. These rays can produce harmful ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) radiation, as well as intense visible light, which is why welders typically wear protective gear like welding helmets with darkened lenses to shield their eyes and skin from the arc’s intense radiation.
  • Arc Strike: An arc strike in welding refers to unintentional arcing or contact between the electrode and the base metal or another unintended surface. This can cause localized damage to the base metal and may introduce defects.
  • Arc Welding: Welding process that use electric flow to melt and fuse the base metal with filler. Basically, SMAW is called arc welding.
  • Air Carbon Arc Cutting/Gouging: It is a cutting process where compressed air and electrode are used to create an arc, melt the metal and cut it into pieces.
  • Alloy: An object that is made with two or more metals and other non-metal material.
  • Aluminum: Aluminum is a lightweight and highly versatile metal known for its excellent strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and thermal conductivity.
  • Automatic Welding: This process uses automatic welding equipment’s to melt the metals and fuse them together to make a weld. Commonly used in manufacturing applications.
  • AWS: The American Welding Society (AWS) is a professional organization and certifying body in the field of welding and allied processes in the United States. It sets industry standards, provides welding education and certification, and promotes best practices in welding and related technologies, contributing to the advancement and safety of the welding industry.


  • Backing gas: A protective gas used on the backside of a weld to prevent oxidation.
  • Back Gouging: Back gouging is a welding process used to remove material from the backside of a weld joint. This technique is typically employed while joining large thick metals together.
  • Backfire & Flashback: It is combustion inside the oxy-acetylene torch which creates a loud explosion.
  • Base Metal: Metal, with which filler metal is going to be welded, brazed or soldered.
  • Bead: A bead refers to the deposited metal that forms the visible line or path of the weld. Bead is the seam between base and filler metal.
  • Bevel: In welding, a bevel is an angled or sloped edge created on the joint area of two work pieces.
  • Blacksmithing: The traditional craft of shaping and joining metals through heating, hammering & forging.
  • Bond: A bond refers to the connection or fusion between two or more pieces of metal that are joined together by the welding.
  • Brazing: A process where metals are joined using a filler metal with a lower melting point, typically above 840°F (450°C). Melting point of the filler must be lower than the base metal to braze.
  • Brazing Alloy: Brazing alloy is a filler material used in the brazing process, which involves joining two or more metal components by melting the filler alloy into the joint area without melting the base metals.
  • Brass: Brass is an alloy composed of copper and zinc, often with small amounts of other elements. It is known for its attractive gold-like appearance and has a wide range of applications, including musical instruments, decorative items, plumbing fittings, and precision engineering.
  • Bronze: Bronze is an alloy made from copper, typically with tin as the main alloying element. It’s renowned for its durability, attractive appearance, and corrosion resistance, making it suitable for the creation of sculptures, coins, medals, and various artistic and functional objects throughout history.
  • Burn Through: Burn through in welding occurs when excessive heat causes a hole through the base metal, creating an undesirable opening in the weld. It typically is a result of using excessive current or inappropriate welding techniques.
  • Butt Joint: A butt joint is a type of weld joint where two pieces of metals are joined together along with their edges in a linear fashion, with no overlapping
  • Buttering: Buttering in welding is a technique where a layer of weld metal is applied to the base metal before performing the main welding pass.


  • Carbone Arc: In this process, carbon electrode is used to create an arc that melts the metal pieces and join them together.
  • Carburizing Flame: A condition where there is excess fuel in oxy-fuel flame.
  • Cap: In welding, the cap refers to the final weld pass or layer that is applied to complete the welding process.
  • Cap Pass: The final pass in a multi-pass weld, ensuring the weld is flush with the base metal.
  • Carbon Arc Electrode: A carbon arc electrode is a rod or stick typically made from carbon or graphite that serves as a conductor in carbon arc welding and cutting processes.
  • Carbon Steel: Carbon steel is an alloy primarily composed of iron and carbon, with trace amounts of other elements. It is widely used in various industries due to its strength, durability, and cost-effectiveness.
  • Cast Iron: Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys known for their excellent cast ability and high wear resistance due to the presence of graphite flakes in the microstructure.
  • Cold Lap: Cold lap in welding, also known as incomplete fusion, happens when the weld bead doesn’t fully fuse the base metal, leaving a gap or lack of bonding between work piece and base metal.
  • Cold Welding: Cold welding is a welding process where no heat is applied. By applying pressure on the work surface, two metal pieces are fused together. In space and vacuum area (where there is lack of oxygen), this type of welding process is used.
  • Complete Joint Penetration: Complete joint penetration in welding refers to a condition where the weld fully penetrates through the thickness of the joint, creating a bond that extends from one side of the joint to the other.
  • Consumable Electrode: Type of electrode that melts during the welding process and becomes part of the weld. It is a type of filler material.
  • Constant Adjusting of Control: Controlling the important perimeters in welding operations constantly like wire speed, voltage & current flow. It is an important skill that all welders must have to have a high quality weld.
  • Constant Current: It refers to a power source that maintains constant current applied to metal pieces during welding.  Commonly used in Tig and stick welding.
  • Constant Current: It refers to a power source that maintains constant current applied to metal pieces during welding.  Commonly used in Tig and stick welding.
  • Copper: Copper is a highly conductive metal with excellent electrical and thermal properties, making it a crucial material in electrical wiring and heat exchangers.
  • Co2 (Carbone Di Oxide): A type of inflammable gas.  It is used as shielding gas in mig welding (GMAW) process. The gas protects the weld from surrounding air.
  • Corner Joint: A corner joint is a type of weld joint where two pieces of material come together at right angles, forming an “L” or “T” shape.
  • Cracks: Cracks in welding are discontinuities or defects in the weld metal or heat-affected zone that can compromise the structural integrity of the welded joint.
  • Crater: A depression left at the end of a weld bead, which can lead to cracking if not properly filled.
  • Cutting Process: Part of fabrication work that removes materials from work piece to have a desired work piece to work with.
  • Cutting Tip: An element that converts oxy-fuel torch into cutting torch.


  • DCEN (Direct Current Electrode Negative): Welder setting where electrode is connected to negative and workpiece to positive.
  • DCEP (Direct Current Electrode Positive): A welding setting where electrode is connected to positive and workpiece at negative socket.
  • Defect: A defect in welding refers to any irregularity, flaw, or imperfection. Defects can include issues like cracks, porosity, lack of fusion, undercut, or incomplete penetration.
  • Deposition Rate: Deposition rate in welding refers to the speed at which the weld metal is applied during the welding process. It is typically measured in terms of weight, length, or volume of material deposited per unit of time.
  • Direct Current (DC): State of current flow where current flows in one direction only. Normally Mig and Tig welding uses DC current flow.
  • Discontinuity: A discontinuity in welding refers to any interruption, gap, or inconsistency in the material or weld joint that doesn’t meet the desired standards or specifications.
  • Distortion: Distortion in welding refers to the undesirable changes in the shape or dimensions of a work piece that occur during or after the welding process. This distortion can result from the differential heating and cooling of the metal.
  • Distortion Control: Techniques and methods used to minimize or manage the warping and bending of materials during welding.
  • Duty Cycle: The ratio of welding time to the total time within a given period, usually expressed as a percentage. It indicates the amount of continuous time a welder can run in 10 minutes period before it need to cool down.
  • Dye Penetrant Testing: Dye penetrant testing in welding is a non-destructive testing method used to detect surface defects or discontinuities in welds and base metals.


  • Eddy Current Testing: Eddy current testing in welding is a non-destructive inspection technique that uses electromagnetic induction to detect surface and near-surface defects in conductive materials.
  • Edge Joint: An edge joint is a welding joint where two pieces of material are joined along their adjacent edges, creating a “butt” joint with a linear contact point.
  • Electric Current: Electrical current is the flow of electricity through the welding circuit, which includes the power source, electrode or filler wire, and the work piece. The current serves to generate the heat required for melting the metal. The current can be either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC), depending on the welding process.
  • Electric Arc: An electric arc is a controlled discharge of electrical energy that generates extremely high temperatures, melting the base metal and the welding electrode or filler wire.
  • Electro Slag Welding: Type of welding primarily used for thick materials. It involves a continuously fed electrode and a pool of molten slag to make a weld.
  • Electrode: An electrode is a consumable or non-consumable component that conducts electricity and is used to create an arc between itself and the work piece.
  • Electrode Holder
    A clip type tool used to grip and control the welding electrode during stick welding processes.
  • Electron Beam Welding: A high-energy welding process that uses a focused beam of electrons to join metals.
  • Electrode Extension: The distance between the electrode and the work piece during welding.
  • End of Electrode: The end of the electrode is the part of the welding rod or wire that is exposed to the welding arc and used to deposit the filler material onto the work piece.
  • Explosion Welding: This welding process uses controlled explosives to create heat through high-velocity collision and bonds two metals pieces together. The solid piece created through explosive welding is called cladding and this process is great for joining dissimilar metals.


  • Flash Welding: This is another example of resistance welding. In this process two clamps (one is movable & another one is fixed) are placed on two work pieces. Then 5 or more amp current is employed on the clamps. When the two parts come close to each other, an arc is created and thus fuse the metals together. For manufacturing applications or high-speed works, this method is used.
  • Flat Position (1G, 1F): The flat welding position, often denoted as the “1F” position, involves welding on a horizontal surface with the weld joint facing upwards
  • FCAW (Flux Cored Arc Welding): Semi-automated arc welding process, where a tubular electrode wire is used as a filler metal with flux on it that shields contamination. This one uses no gas and that’s why it is called gasless mig welding.
  • Filler Metal: Filler metal is a crucial metal that is used to join or fill gaps between two or more pieces of metal.
  • Flame Cutting: It is oxy-fuel cutting
  • Fillet Joint: A joint where two metals is welded in 90 degree to create a triangular shape.
  • Flow Rate Of Shielding Gas: The flow rate of shielding gas is a critical parameter in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). It controls the volume of gas that envelops the welding area, preventing atmospheric contamination, ensuring proper protection for the molten weld pool.
  • Flux: Flux refers to a substance used to protect the weld area from oxidation and contamination. It is a component that is used to reduce oxides while increasing the cleaning action. It activates when heated.
  • Flux Core Wire: Welding electrode wire that contains flux on it.
  • Forge Welding: It is actually heat and pressure. Heat is applied to melt the metals and then pressure is applied to join the metals together. Normally blacksmiths use the method.
  • Friction Welding: The name itself describe the welding process. In this process friction is generated between two pieces of metal. And when the two metal pieces are in molten state (due to heat), it automatically fuses them together and creates a weld.
  • Fume Extractor: A fume extractor in welding is a device designed to remove and filter hazardous welding fumes and smoke from the workspace to protect the health of welders.
  • Fusion: Fusion in welding refers to the process of melting the base metal and the filler material to create a homogenous, fully bonded joint.
  • Fusion Line: The boundary where the base metal and filler metal have completely melted and merged during welding.


  • Gas Welding:: The welding process utilizes a flame produced by the combustion of gases to melt metals and join them.
  • GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding): Another name MIG (Metal Inert Gas) welding. Here a solid wire electrode is used as a filler material. Gas is distributed to protect the weld beam and molten metal from outside oxygen to avoid oxidation. It is a semi-automatic process.
  • Groove: A groove refers to the channel or recess created in the base metal to accommodate the weld bead. Grooves are designed in various shapes, such as V, U, or J and they play a critical role in controlling the weld’s depth, profile, and strength.
  • Groove Angle: The angle formed between the two pieces of metal being joined in a groove weld.
  • Groove Welding: Welding in grooves.
  • GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding): In the method, tungsten is used as filler metal. Shielded gas is applied to avoid oxidation.  This process produce seamless and clean weld. Another name of the method is TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding.


  • Heat-Affected Zone: The heat-affected zone (HAZ) in welding is the portion of the base metal adjacent to the weld where its microstructure and properties have been altered by the heat generated during the welding process.
  • Hell-arc: GAs Tungsten Arc Welding
  • High-Temperature: Temperature above room temperature. Typically used in fabrication, manufacturing industry and other metal works.
  • Hot Pass: A pass made after the root pass to ensure complete fusion and to provide a sound base for subsequent passes.
  • Horizontal Position: The horizontal welding position, typically labeled as “2F” for fillet welds and “2G” for groove welds, involves welding on a horizontal surface with the weld joint oriented at a 45-degree angle to the ground.


  • Inert Gas: It is non-reactive gas that doesn’t react with metal being welded. It shields the weld from outside air. Example: Helium, argon & nitrogen.
  • Industrial Steel: Industrial steel typically refers to a wide range of steel materials used in various industrial applications, such as manufacturing, construction, and infrastructure.
  • Inter Pass Temperature: The temperature range to which a welded joint is subjected between passes.


  • Kerf: Width of a cut.


  • Lack Of Fusion: Lack of fusion in welding is a defect that occurs when the weld metal fails to fuse properly with the base metal. It can lead to a weak and incomplete weld. It often results from factors such as inadequate heat input, improper welding techniques or contaminated surfaces.
  • Lap Joint: A lap joint is a type of welding joint where two pieces of material overlap one another, similar to a seam or an extended “T” connection.
  • Laser Beam Welding: A welding process using a highly focused laser beam to melt and fuse metals.


  • Magnesium: Magnesium is a lightweight metal with excellent strength-to-weight properties, often used in industries where weight reduction is crucial, such as automotive and aerospace. It is highly flammable and prone to corrosion which limits its use in some applications.
  • Magnetic Particle Testing: Magnetic particle testing in welding is a non-destructive testing method used to identify surface and near-surface defects in ferromagnetic materials like steel. It involves magnetizing the material and observing their alignment to detect any defects.
  • Maximum Short Circuit Current: It refers to maximum amount of current that can be flowed through a circuit during a short circuit event. It is very important term in welding for safety consideration.
  • Melting Point: A point of temperature where solid metal transits into liquid form.
  • Metal-Cored Arc Welding (MCAW): A variation of FCAW using a tubular wire with a metallic core, providing high deposition rates and good weld quality.
  • Metal Particles: Metal particles are small, discrete pieces of metallic material that can take various forms, including powders, shavings, or granules.
  • Metal Parts: Metal components used in construction and manufacturing work.
  • Metal Surface: Outside part of the metal piece.
  • MIG: It is another name of GMAW process.
  • Mild Steel: Mild steel, also known as low carbon steel, is an iron-carbon alloy with a relatively low carbon content.
  • Multi-Pass Fillet Weld: A multi-pass fillet weld in welding involves the application of multiple layers of weld metal to create a strong and complete connection between two pieces of material, usually forming a triangular cross-section.
  • Multi-Pass Welding: A technique where multiple weld passes are made to complete a joint, often used on thicker materials.


  • Nickel Alloys: Nickel alloys are a group of materials primarily composed of nickel and other elements, such as chromium, molybdenum, and iron. These alloys exhibit exceptional corrosion resistance & high-temperature strength.
  • Non Consumable Electrode: A non-consumable electrode in welding is an electrode that does not melt or become part of the weld during the welding process. It serves to transfer electrical current to the work piece and create the heat required for melting the base metal and filler material.
  • Non-Destructive Testing (NDT): Techniques like X-ray, ultrasonic, and visual inspection to evaluate weld quality without damaging the work piece.


  • OAW (Oxy-Acetylene Welding): In the process acetylene is used as a fuel gas with oxygen. It creates flame and melts the work piece to make a weld.
  • OAC (Oxyacetylene Cutting): Oxy fuel cutting using acetylene gas.
  • OFC (Oxy-fuel Cutting): Another name is flame cutting. In the process fuel gas like acetylene and oxygen mix is used to pressurize and heated the steel at 1600°F, that burn through the metal.
  • OFW (Oxy-Fuel Welding): In the process fuel gas and oxygen are used to create a flame which in turns melts the work piece and make a weld.
  • OPW (Oxy-Propane Welding): It is also like OAW (oxy-acetylene welding). The only difference is it uses propane gas a fuel with oxygen.
  • Overhead Position: The overhead welding position, denoted as “4F” for fillet welds and “4G” for groove welds, requires welding on a surface above the welder, against the force of gravity. This position is challenging as it demands careful control to prevent issues like sagging or undercut in the weld bead, making it suitable for applications where welding on the underside of structures or components is necessary.
  • Overlap: Overlap in welding is a defect that occurs when the weld metal extends beyond the boundary of the base metal, resulting in overlapping bead.


  • PAPR: A Powered Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR) hood is a type of personal protective equipment used in welding to protect the welder’s respiratory system. It consists of a helmet with a built-in powered air purifying system that provides a continuous supply of filtered air, safeguarding welders from inhaling harmful welding fumes and particles while offering head and face protection.
  • Parent Metal: The parent metal, also known as the base metal, is the primary piece or pieces of material that are being joined together by the welding process. The quality, properties, and compatibility of the parent metal play a crucial role in determining the strength and integrity of the weld.
  • Partial Joint Penetration: Partial joint penetration in welding refers to a condition where the weld does not fully penetrate the thickness of the joint, leaving a portion of the base metal unjointed.
  • PAW (Plasma Arc Welding): The process uses high temperature and high pressure plasma to make a weld. Normally aerospace industries & high precision applications use the method.
  • Penetration: Penetration in welding refers to the depth to which the weld material extends into the base metal. It is a critical factor in determining the weld’s overall quality and integrity.
  • Plasma Cutting: Plasma cutting involves a focused arc to cut through materials, where either compressed air or inert gas is used to expel the melted metal from the cut.
  • Plate: Flat metal thicker than 3/14″.
  • Plug Welding: Welding process where weld is created by filling a hole in one piece with molten metal.
  • Porosity: Porosity in welding refers to the presence of small voids or gas pockets within the weld metal, which can weaken the weld and reduce its integrity.
  • Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT): The controlled heating and cooling of a welded part to relieve stresses and improve properties.
  • Power Source: A power source in welding is the equipment or device that supplies the electrical energy necessary to create an electric arc for the welding process.
  • PPE: Personal protective equipment (PPE) is essential to ensure the safety of welders. It includes items like welding helmets, gloves, flame-resistant clothing, safety glasses, and respirators, which protect welders from hazards like sparks, fumes, radiation, and burns during the welding process, safeguarding their health and well-being.
  • Pre qualified Welding Procedure: A standardized welding procedure that has already been qualified and does not require additional testing.
  • Projection Welding : This type of resistance welding process focuses welding on a specific point or projection. Specially designed electrodes are used to weld specific point on work piece metal.
  • Puddle: In welding, a puddle refers to the molten pool of metal created by the heat of the welding arc. The welder manipulates this puddle to deposit the filler material and form the weld bead that requires skill and control.
  • Pulsed Welding: A welding process that alternates between high and low current levels to control heat input and minimize distortion.


  • Radiographic Testing: Radiographic testing in welding is a non-destructive testing method that employs X-rays or gamma rays to produce an image of the internal structure of a weld. This method is effective in detecting internal defects.
  • Ratio Of The Weight Of Filler Metal: It represents the weight relative to length of filler metal.
  • Resistance Of Current Flow: Resistance is a measurement of opposition to current flow. Resistance current flow is a measurement of resistance in a circuit during current flow. Resistance is symbolized by Greek letter (Ω) measured in OHMs.
  • Root Face: A root face is a flat surface on the root side of a joint, typically created by machining or grinding the edge of one or both pieces being joined.
  • Root Of A Fillet Weld: The root of a fillet weld is the point at which the two pieces of metal being joined come together at a right angle, forming the inside corner of the weld joint.
  • Root Opening: A root opening in welding refers to the intentional gap or space left between the two pieces of material being joined at the root of a weld joint to facilitate the penetration of the weld bead and the proper fusion of the base metal.
  • Root Pass: The initial weld bead in a joint, often requiring special attention to ensure proper penetration and fusion.


  • Saddle Joint: Joint between round tubes. Here tubes are cut according to the requirement and fitted together with other tubes to make desired project.
  • SAW (Submerged Arc Welding): SAW is a welding process where electric arc is created through continuously feeding an electrode to the work piece. It is a fully automated technique with higher deposition rate.
  • Scarfing: Scarfing is a process used to remove unwanted material from the surface of a weld or the base metal before, during, or after the welding operation using acetylene torch by heating the surface of the metal.
  • Seam Welding: Seam welding is a continuous resistance welding process along the work pieces. It is normally used in application required to seal gas or liquid bottle.
  • Sheet: Flat metal thinner than 3/14″
  • Shielding Gas: Gas that protects molten weld pool from outside contaminants.
  • Slag: Impurities around the weld bead that is formed as a coating.
  • Slag Inclusions: Discontinuities or defects that occur when non-metallic materials, known as slag, become trapped within the weld metal during the welding process.
  • SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding): This is also referred to as stick welding. In this process, a flux coated electrode is used to make a bead between base and workpiece and join the them together.
  • Solder: Solder is a low-melting-point metal alloy commonly used in electronics and plumbing to join or connect components by creating a metallurgical bond between them
  • Soldering: In soldering a low-heat process, typically below 840°F (450°C), is used to join metals with a lower melting point filler material.
  • Solid Piece: A metal piece that is created by fusing two or more metal pieces together into a unit by welding.
  • Solid-State Welding: A group of welding processes that create bonds without melting the base material.
  • Spatter: Small, unwanted bits of molten metal or droplets that is created during the arc welding process. It can adhere to nearby surfaces of base metal and cause issues such as contamination & poor aesthetics that must be cleaned up.
  • Spot Welding: It is a resistance welding process that uses pressure and heat to join two metals together. Commonly thinners metals are welded using the process.
  • Stainless Steel: Stainless steel is a corrosion-resistant alloy characterized by high chromium content, which forms a protective oxide layer on the surface, preventing rust and staining.
  • Stick Welding: Same as SMAW.
  • Stringer Bead: A stringer bead in welding is a type of weld bead produced by a single pass of the welding electrode or filler wire in a straight line along the joint.


  • Tack Weld: A temporary weld used to hold components in place for final welding.
  • T-Joint: Type of weld joint where two materials are joined at right angles to each other, forming a “T” shape.
  • TIG: Same as GTAW.
  • Titanium: Titanium is a lightweight, corrosion-resistant metal known for its exceptional strength and bio-compatibility, making it valuable in various industries, including aerospace, medical implants, and sporting equipment.


  • Ultrasonic Testing: Ultrasonic testing in welding is a non-destructive testing method that uses high-frequency sound waves to detect and evaluate internal flaws or defects in welds and base materials.
  • Ultrasonic Welding: In this process, high-frequency vibrations are generated using specially designed machines that in turn creates heat that fuses the metals together. This type of welding process is generally used in plastic material welding.
  • Undercut: Undercut in welding is a groove or depression along the edge of the weld that results from excessive melting of the base metal during the welding process.
  • Underwater Welding: Welding performed underwater, typically for repairs to structures like bridges and oil platforms.
  • Upset Welding
    In this resistance welding process no electrode is used. Here current is flowed to the work pieces to be joint together, and when the metals come to molten state, then pressure is employed evenly so that the metals are fused together and cooled down to make it one piece.


  • Vertical Position: The vertical welding position, often indicated as “3F” for fillet welds and “3G” for groove welds, involves welding on a vertical surface with the weld joint oriented either upward or downward.
  • Visual Inspection: Visual inspection in welding is a critical quality control process where a trained inspector examines the weld with the naked eye to assess its overall appearance and identify surface imperfections or defects.


  • Weave: A weave refers to the technique of moving the welding arc and electrode or torch in a controlled, back-and-forth pattern along the weld joint.
  • Weld Metal Test Specimen: Test welding where a sample of metal is welded to test the strength and quality of the weld for inspection purpose.
  • Weld Test: A weld test in welding is a procedure conducted to evaluate the quality, performance, and integrity of a weld or a welding process.
  • Welders: Welders are skilled professionals who executes the welding process. Welders must possess a strong understanding of welding techniques, materials, safety procedures, and the ability to interpret welding symbols and specifications.
  • Welding Apron:: A protective garment worn by welders to shield their body and clothing from sparks and heat.
  • Welding Arc: A welding arc is the luminous, high-temperature discharge of electrical energy that occurs between the welding electrode and the work piece. This arc is the heat source responsible for melting the base metal and filler material, allowing them to fuse together to form a weld bead and create a secure connection between the materials.
  • Welding Automation: The use of robotic systems and machines to perform welding tasks, increasing efficiency and consistency.
  • Welding Certification: Official recognition of a welder’s ability to meet specified standards in their work.
  • Welding Code: A set of standards and guidelines that define the acceptable quality and procedures for welding.
  • Welding Clamp: A metal clip that hold the metals pieces together tightly for welding purpose.
  • Welding Coupon: A sample joint used for practice, testing, or inspection to ensure quality and compliance.
  • Welding Distortion Correction: Methods to rectify or reduce distortion in welded structures.
  • Welding Electrode Coating: A layer of material on the electrode that releases gas to protect the weld area and improve slag removal.
  • Welding Engineer: A professional with expertise in welding processes and materials who designs welding procedures. Generally holds a professional degree from educational institution.
  • Welding Filler Metal Classification: Codes and designations that specify the type and composition of welding filler materials.
  • Welding Gas: The shielding gas used to protect the weld area from atmospheric contamination.
  • Welding Generator: A mobile power source that provides electricity for welding in remote locations.
  • Welding Goggles: Eye protection gear used during welding to shield from intense light and UV radiation.
  • Welding Gloves: Heat-resistant gloves that protect welders from burns and sparks.
  • Welding Helmet: A protective headgear with a darkened visor to shield the welder’s eyes from harmful UV rays.
  • Welding Inspector: A trained professional responsible for ensuring welding work complies with standards and specifications.
  • Welding Joint Design: The configuration and geometry of the joint to be welded, which influences the welding process and quality.
  • Welding Machine: The equipment that generates the necessary power for welding and controls the processes.
  • Welding Metallurgy: The study of how the properties and structure of metals change during welding.
  • Welding Plate: A test piece used to evaluate welding procedures and the quality of welds.
  • Welding Positioner: A device that holds and rotates work pieces to achieve the desired welding position.
  • Welding Position Qualification: Certification for a welder to perform welding in specific positions, such as overhead or vertical.
  • Welding Power Supply: The source of electrical power for welding operations.
  • Welding Preheat: Applying heat to the base metal before welding to reduce the risk of cracking.
  • Welding Procedure Qualification: The process of testing and certifying a specific welding procedure to ensure it produces sound welds.
  • Welding Procedure Specification (WPS):
    A document that outlines the specific parameters and instructions for a welding process.
  • Welding Qualification Test: A test performed by a welder to demonstrate their skill and ability to meet specific welding standards.
  • Welding Quality Control: Measures and processes to maintain the quality of welds and welding procedures.
  • Welding Rod: A welding rod refers to a consumable electrode that provides both the electrical current and the filler material required for the welding process. It comes typically in the form of a long, cylindrical stick, wire, or rod and mostly used in SMAW.
  • Welding Rod Oven: A storage device that keeps welding electrodes dry and free from moisture to prevent defects.
  • Welding Safety: Safety measures and practices to protect welders from hazards such as burns, fumes, and radiation.
  • Welding Shop Layout: Organizing a workspace for efficient and safe welding operations.
  • Welding Speed: The rate at which the welding electrode or torch is moved along the joint.
  • Welding Symbol: A standardized graphical representation used on blueprints to convey welding requirements.
  • Welding Table: A work table surface designed for welding, typically with features like clamps and fixtures. Welders place work pieces on the table and weld in different position.  
  • Welding Tractors: Automated systems that move along the work piece, ensuring consistent travel speed and weld quality.
  • Welding Transformer: An electrical device that converts voltage for welding machines.
  • Welding Voltage: The electrical potential difference applied in welding, affecting arc length and heat input.
  • Welding Wire: Welding wire is a consumable electrode that serves as the filler material for certain welding processes. It typically comes in the form of a wire and is used in processes like gas metal arc welding (GMAW) or flux-cored arc welding (FCAW.
  • Weldment: A weldment refers to an assembly or structure created by joining individual components or work pieces using various welding processes.
  • Weld Metal: Weld metal refers to the portion of the joint that is formed by the melted filler material, which has been deposited during the welding process. This molten filler material solidifies to create the actual weld bead that joins the base metals together.
  • Weld Pool: The weld pool in welding is the localized molten area created by the heat of the welding arc, where the base metal and filler material are fused together to form the weld.
  • Weld Root: The weld root is the junction between the two base metals being joined, often found at the very center or bottom of the weld joint.
  • Wire Feed: Same as GMAW.
  • Wire Feeder: A wire feeder is a device that delivers the welding electrode, typically in the form of a wire, to the welding arc. It is an essential component in semi-automatic and automatic welding processes.
  • Wormhole: A wormhole in welding is a specific type of weld defect characterized by a cavity or void within the weld bead. These voids are typically caused by gas entrapment, often hydrogen, during the welding process.


  • X-ray Inspection: A non-destructive testing method using X-rays to detect internal defects in welds.


I have tried to write all of the terminologies associated with welding. Hopefully you will find the post useful. If I made any mistake or if I have missed anything, please feel free to let me know in comment box. I would appreciate your suggestion and also would definitely fix the error.

Leave a Comment